Globalization, Religion, Islam
Doctor of theological sciences
Key words: Globalization, religion, Islam
This speedy time of the XXI century, has created systems conflicting with each other. On the one hand the globalization, conflict of cultures from other side global terror, religion other side and blows wanted to strike to the religion and at the same time on image of Islam in the world. All of these are discussed in our developing world very seriously. In general connections of the globalization with religion in modern and with Islam as one of religion are explained by some specialists differently. No serious investigations have not been carried out in the area of connected with globalization and both Islam in Azerbaijan. Therefore, is not so easy to determine view being formed to this problem. It is positive event to collect investigations in this direction to disseminate as one collection. All steps done in direction of explaining and understanding of the classic and modern terms must be appraised. Science development will be possible namely with this. Azerbaijan must perceive the globalization as one society and must select the most acceptable variants for this purpose. Understanding of the Islam as religion and clarification of connection with globalization will play the important part in protecting of the global moral-ethical qualities. In this work we tried to clarify relations with globalization, in general with religion, and particularly with Islam.
1- The globalization phenomenon
In the root of globalization turning to one inseparable part of the politics of modern world, the more development of the industry takes important place, the more factors are present in its root. Three basic factors have played the important part in emerging of globalization especially: Economical development, political strength and cultural relations.1. Science, media, and education can be added to these factors. 2. The conception in Western world, where the globalization emerged first and the conception in Islamic world differs much from each other. Therefore, it sis necessary to define how the globalization conception is understood in Islamic world and which similar and different features are available between Islam and globalization.
Globalization encircles everything that comes to its front and nothing left behind its influence. Question arises here justly, what novelties had the globalization brought in human life? To our mind, if one replies this question, the thoughts about both globalization and religion will be understood true. The globalization has secured the quick motion of the human man life firstly. Beside it with development of the technology the men had got an opportunity to get easily and within short time information from any point of the world. But it helps rapid thinking to arise and gives more orientation to human brain for development. But this rapid development makes correct understanding of globalization harder. 3. One can talk a lot about globalization phenomenon. But we will touch still to general principle of the globalization for the present. In addition to thoughts sounded above the globalization is estimated in the following manner: According to the first thought the political, i.e. the authority of the United States of America in the world is expressed. It is very close to the truth. Because, the influence of America is seen in all areas of our life. In this meaning, it is possible to tell that the globalization turned to be the modern ideology of the America. According to the second thought, it is globalization in economic area. But its meaning is the authority in the international currency- the capital in the world. But in the third case the globalization is understood as influence of the western manner of thinking, traditions to the cultural and social life, living, culture, culturology, religion, belief. 4. Some researchers defend the idea that the globalization aims to build one system world. 5. As we see the globalization has multifold system.
The new terminology of global terrorism was added to conceptions of global economics, politics for recent years. Modern man lives together with danger of global terror. At result like political and theoretical systems it is inevitable the globalization brings negative features besides positive.
2- Phenomenon of religion
Our mankind had passed through long stages starting with father Adam and has come till our days. People have believed to different religion in these stages. Among these religions we can count Zoroastrism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Scientists have come to such conclusion from studies that the history of religion is ancient as the history of mankind. 6. The explanation of religion as a collection of theological laws sent by the God affirms it. Baudelaire expresses the inborn interest of the man to the religion like: There is nothing interesting in the world like religion. 7. In reality if we cast a glance at mankind history the religion had played important role in the world history.
Prof. Dr. Hasan Onat declares thoughts about religion as: "Religion in general, is an abstract conception; it is available only at human consciousness. There is Allah (God) in the outside of the man; there is prophet and holy books. But only individual believes to the Allah (God). The individual feels the belief of Allah (God) in the depths of dignity, making the inner world with the belief, reflecting it in behaviors. Religion makes picture of individual and the individual makes picture of religion. The religion in reality is a phenomenon that assumes everybody knowing it but which can not be easily defined because of being abstract."8
Now let’s consider the how will be influence of globalization as 1st engagement of the world on the religion and its vice –versa, i.e. how will be the influence of religion on globalization. It is necessary to keep in the limelight one issue that there is no single sided connection between the religion and globalization, so it is not true to claim that the globalization prevails or the religion is subordinated to it. 9
It is possible to meet researchers defending positive and negative influence of globalization to religion. So, according to Dr. A.Aslan that emphasizes influence of globalization to religion in two directions” by bringing to front the economical and political organizations creating conditions to globalization, social and ethical problems it gives impetus to the strengthening of religion and creates opportunity of the moving to the religion in the international world, and from other side prevents the acting of religion as liaison meaning in global conditions and makes it senseless 10.
3 – Islam
We have talked about relations between globalization and religion phenomena. But here we will talk about last divine religion – Islam and its values and will try to explain its links with globalization. The Islam is a religion sent by Allah. It was expressed as "the religion before Allah is Islam” in the Koran. It is possible to come to such conclusion that Islam is common name of all religions sent by Allah (God). So both Judaism and Christianity (being not distorted) in reality is Islam. So there should not be any doubt in universality of bases brought by the Islam.
Ultimate goal of the Islam religion is to secure prosperity of the man. A moral comes in the head of the most main values brought to the mankind by Islam. Because morals, is the international value. Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) has affirmed it: "I was sent to complete the nice moral”12 .
Moreover Islam recommends the just behave of the man. Guarantee of the social justice is one of basic principles of the Islam, especially. It is necessary to note that justice conception is the international value.
Islam is not satisfied with it, and it brings new system taking into account the economical difficulties of the human life. It is called zakat in Islam terminology. 13. In modern world it may be called as economical praying. It is ideal method of giving the insignificant part of the properties of rich to the needy persons and for normal provision of social life.
Islam pays attention to the protecting of the human rights and equality, and states equality of men in regard of national belonging, racial and socio-economic position. 14. According to Islam superiority is possible with possession the science and right behavior. 15. If it possible to increase the number of the innovations brought to the mankind by Islam, these examples are sufficient to our mind.
Important features of the religion for mankind history, which were wrote by Hans Kung and Karl Kuschelin and signed by many famous people in expressions like “Declaration on world morals” assume big importance:
"We have learned from personal experience and from history of world full of anguish that it was impossible to build good world system just with laws and traditions; it will be build with force.
For provision of peace, justice and protection of earth, provision of justice in men and collaboration is necessary. And aid, liability and perception of responsibility in making the justice and freedom to truth the address should be made towards brains and souls. Any support is not possible that will ensure permanency of law without ethical behavior and therefore the therefore to build a new system will not be possible without international world moral.
Result; Criticism or definition
Islam world has begun to get acquainted with globalization closely at the beginning of the XXI century and deeply to feel its influences. We have tried to evaluate influences between Islam and globalization in various manners. So, we saw that globalization is one knowledge machine. To use this knowledge machine logically and at the same time not of contrary of right values is not harmful. In view of all these we have tried to collect both positive and negative sides of globalization.
So, following positive sides of the globalization:
- It facilitated the creation of conditions for setting of thousands of workplaces in the world, especially in the world.
- Progress in the area of information and telecommunication and assistance to its delivery to wide masses.
- Number of credits and investments were increased.
- Technology exchange has been increased.
- Opportunities of science and education have been increased and brought human sources to the active case.
- Respecting of law, property and human rights was broadened.
- Building of the NGO-s and connections between them rises growingly.
All these are positive, useful sides of the globalization. But now let us pay attention to negative and harmful parts.
In the result of the globalization:
- The world trade gets accumulated in the hands of big and international organizations.
- Exploitation of the cheap labor, using of local condition creates systems which spoils environment.
- In spite of increase of richness in the global manner, earnings or incomes were gathered in the hand of certain strata.
- Missioner activity has come to the global case.
- The limit of the poverty for last decade in the world scale has been reached to 1.5 billion people
It is necessary to accept one thing that the globalization has penetrated to our life as irrefutable one. Therefore we must live together with globalization and must perceive it. But we must work to prevent influences being from the side of the globalization on the other hand and to give direction to globalization from other hand.
As we expressed, Islamic world has deep, rich, cultural and historical inheritance. We must put all of them forefront one by one. Because our history is our past. The future is built on the past. We must know the dynamic elements of our history. They will put a light on our future.
For this purposes mature and being matured young brains of experts of Islam world, thinking and religion in all areas must be gathered together without wasting time and should deliver the Islam with its international principles to the world in true way. Because, majority of those who has wrong impression on Islam either does not anything about Islam or has wrong information.
Just those having right information about Islam can judge correctly. In such case it will become clear that Islam brings such values to mankind as humanness, peace, prosperity, restoration of social justice, tranquility, thought and conscience freedom, economical guarantee. It should be understood that the religion is not a purpose but means. The easiest way to deliver it to the mankind: is the globalization self, which we have tried to explain positive and negative sides.
1 Küreselleşme, Sivil Toplum ve İslam, Heyet, İstanbul 1997, s. 36; Erbay, Yusuf, "Kavram Olarak Küreselleşme", Yeni Türkiye, XXI Yüzyıl Özel Sayısı-I (sayı 19).
2 Dr. Abdulaziz Othman Altwaijri: "Globalization and the Cultural Life in the Islamic World", www.isesco.org.ma/pub/Eng/Globalization/Chap1/htm
3 Hasan Onat, "Küreselleşme ve İslamı Yeniden Düşünmek", www.hasanonat.com
4 Qloballaşmanın nə olduğu, nəyi ifadə etdiyi başa düşülmədən, onun haqqında hər hansı fikir söyləmək doğru deyildir. Yeri gəldikcə qloballaşma və onun mənfi və müsbət cəhətləri haqqında ətraflı məlumat almaq üçün baxınız: Milli kültürler ve küreselleşme. Prof. Dr. Erol Güngörün hatırasına. Yayına hazırlayanlar, Prof.Dr. Bahaeddin Yediyıldız, Doç. Dr. Çağatay Özdemir, Doç. Dr. Fahri Unan, Konya 1998; Barnet, R., Global Reach, Simon and Schuster Pub., New York; Aren, Sadun; "Küreselleşme, Sosyalizm ve Geleceğin Yönü", NPQ Türkiye, Cild 1, Sayı 4, (Kış, 1999); Qloballaşma və İslam, Elmi Konfransın Materyalları, Bakı, 12-13 may 2004; Ayata, Sencer, "Toplumbilim Açısından Küreselleşme", Emperyalizmin Yeni Masalı Küreselleşme, (Yayına Haz.: Işıq Kansu), Imge Kitabevi, Ankara 1997; B. H. Emre; "Küreselleşme, Devlet ve Demokrasi", Amme İdaresi Dergisi, Cilt 32, Sayı 4 (Aralıq 1999); Erdem, M. Burhan; "Küreselleşme ve Bilgi Çağında Yeni Ekonomi", Yeni Türkiye, XXI Yüzyıl Özel Sayısı-I (sayı 20); Gencay Şaylan, Değişim, Küreselleşme ve Devletin Yeni İşlevi, İmge Kitabevi, Ankara 1995; Keyman, E. Fuat və Ali Yaşar Sarıbay, "Küreselleşme, Siyaset ve Toplumsal Yaşam", Küreselleşme, Sivil Toplum ve İslam, (Der.: E. Fuat Keyman ve Ali Yaşar Sarıbay), Vadi Yayınları, Konya 1998; Kömeçoğlu, Uğur, "Küreselleşme, Modernleşme ve Modernlik", Doğu Batı, Yıl: 5, Sayı: 18 (Şubat, mart, nisan 2002)
5 Sarıtaş, Müzeyyen, "Son Yüzyılda Dünyada və Türk Dünyasında Bilim ve Teknoloji", Milli kültürler ve küreselleşme. Prof. Dr. Erol Güngörün hatırasına. Konya 1998. s.61.
6 Tümer, Prof. Dr. Günay - Küçük, Prof. Dr. Abdurrahman, Dinler Tarihi(184+0)Ankara 1997, s.1.
7 Dinlər haqqında daha ətraflı məlumat üçün baxın: Din Fenomeni, Heyet, Konya 1993.
8 Hasan Onat, "Küreselleşme ve İslamı Yeniden Düşünmek", www.hasanonat.com
9 Dr. Adnan, Aslan, "Küreselleşme ve Din", www.diyanet.gov.tr/DİYANET/avrupa/2004avrupa/aralik/y03.html
10 Dr. Adnan, Aslan, "Küreselleşme ve Din", www.diyanet.gov.tr/DİYANET/avrupa/2004avrupa/aralik/y03.html
11 Qurani Kərim, Al-i İmran surəsi, 19-cu ayə; Maidə surəsi, 3-cü ayə.
12 İmam Malik; Muvatta, Hüsnü-l Xülq, 8, II/904.
13 Qurani Kərim, əl-Bəqərə surəsi, 43-cü, 83-cü, 110-cu; ən-Nur surəsi, 56-cı ayə; Müzzəmmil surəsi, 20-ci ayə; ən-Nisa surəsi, 77-ci ayə.
14 Həzrəti Peyğəmbər, vəfatından bir müddət əvvəl "Vida xütbəsində" bu məsələni dəqiq şəkildə açıqlamışdır.
15 Qurani-Kərim, əl-Hücurat surəsi, 13-cü ayə.
16 Hans Küng- Karl Kuschel, Evrensel bir ahlaka doğru, tərcümə edən, N. Aşıkoğlu-C. Tosun-R. Doğan, Ankara 1995, s.16.
Please wright your opinion to article and view others comments