International Award


What factor pushes the globalization?


Abbas Atilay

Struggle of cultures: towards new world structure

According to opinion of S.Hangtinon, conflicts that may occur in our future world will occur not on economical or ideological reasons but just for differences in culture, and objects participating in these conflicts try to get into union with other carriers of the same culture. According to him theories on establishing of mutual close relations and to be united in unions of countries with same culture in the world (S.Hantigton sometimes names it as “relative country”) take places of political ideas and meetings have great influences on policy of states.
To prove his though S.Hantington notes 3 conflicts which have been happened at last decade of the XX century?
1) Iraq had occupied other Arab state Kuwait during the Gulf war and later he had to face a collation of Arab, West and other states. In view though very few Arab countries supported Saddam Hussain but they he was supported by Arab elite and it made him popular in Arab world. Even fundamentalist Islamic movements supported Iraq much more than Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, which are pro-western. S.Hussain used to note that they belong to Islamic culture rather than Arab and that the war is inter-cultural confrontation.
Meccanian Umm Al-Havali has commented the essence of this war as: "This is not a confrontation of the world with Iraq but West to Islamic world".
Moslem came to conclusion that the West conducts dual standard policy because of its policy in Iraq, non-supporting of Bosnians against the Serbs and having no effective actions against Israel which does not observe UN resolutions.
They don’t know that the fighting world of cultures is a world of unpreventable dual standards, and men carry out one standard towards own relative countries and quite another standard towards another country. Union of "Relative country" became clear at bloody collisions which happened among countries which entered the former Soviet Union. Military gains of the Armenian forces in 1992-1993 had moved Turkey to support his religious and racial brothers, which used the same language and lived in the Caucasus. One Turkish statesman told in 1992 that “We belong to one Turk nation having same feelings with Azerbaijanis. Our newspapers are full with terrible photos and they ask us if we are serious in carrying out of neutral policy yet. It may be necessary to show Armenia an existence in the region great Turkey”. Head of the State Turgut Ozal said further that "Turkey must show its teeth”.
Former communists are in the power now in Azerbaijan. Though, political considerations allowed the place to religious ideas together with disintegration of the Soviet Union. Azerbaijan had blamed Russian government, which «turned for 180 degree" for assisting always Armenia materially and militarily.
One more examples is connected with conflicts in Yugoslavia. This conflict is full of dual standards shown by cultures against other. So, west media and community created sympathy towards Moslem boshnaks that stood vis-a-vis with oppression of the orthodox Serbs, and they supported them. Later that Western Community had no effective reaction to the aggression of the Catholic Croatians against Moslem boshnaks and having big influence to disintegration of Bosnia-Hersegovina, which became as independent state.
Germany has forced diplomatically 11 other members (then European Union had just 12 members) to recognize an independence of Slovenia and Croatia at initial stage of disintegration of Yugoslavia and to support them. Pope was the strongest man assisting to these two Catholic countries. The USA, other bearer of the Christian culture was not falling behind from countries of Western Europe in supporting of Christian catholic countries of former Yugoslavia. The case even was that it was officially declared that Croatia would purchase weapon in huge amount from countries of Central Europe and other west countries. But government of Boris Yeltsin in turn was showing secretly every kind of closeness to orthodox Serbs. Despite of it some parliamentarians from conservative and nationalist Russian groups were showing pressures to government for assisting to Serbs more effectively. Information connected with joint exercise in 1993 and supplying of weapons to Serbia was caught.
On the other hand compared to Catholic Christians living in the Yugoslavia the Islamic countries and Moslem communities were criticizing severely the West for not protecting the Moslem boshnaks. Iranian religious leaders were calling all Moslems to help Bosnia. At the same time Iran has neglected weapon embargo of UN and assists boshnaks militarily. Governments of Saudi Arabia and other Moslem countries had stayed under increasing pressures of fundamentalist groups in their countries related to support to Boshnaks. According to sayings, till the end of 1993 Saudi Arabia has supplied boshnaks with military equipment rather more than compared to Serbs.
Purification of cultures (union of nations belonging to one civilization) was in limited form up to this day, but this process is growing today and it possesses the potential of spreading in the big scale. Apparently in the examples that we noted above, in the Persian Gulf, Caucasians, Bosnia etc. by continuation of discords the disunities among nations for the positions will be along the culture boundaries in the wider form. Populist politicians, religious leaders and media will use skillfully this card to get support of masses and to keep hesitating weakly governments under pressure. Local wars in the future supposedly will be turned to bigger wars like in Balkans, the Middle East, and Caucasus along the differences among cultures. Most probably, further world war will be war among cultures".


S.Hantington does characterize the post-cold war structure in the specific form. According to his opinion, secret bloody boundaries which have remained among cultures have substituted with political and ideological boundaries being rich in bloody and hot points of the Cold War, the war began when the "Iron curtain» had divided the Europe politically and ideologically and it came to an end with pull of the same curtain.
While division of the world from ideological viewpoint is lifted differences between western and other cultures began to show it anew. There are different causes hindering integration of non-western countries to the West. These reasons are bigger for Islam, Confucianism, Buddhism and Hinduism. Countries feeling impossibility of integration to the West and at the same time and which do not want to join to Western culture make efforts to withstand against Western countries in competition by strengthening their economical and political and military potentials. They implement it by developing relations with non-west countries. According to S.Hantington the simple example of such close relations is Islam-Confucianism closeness, which challenges Western values and interests.
Today China, North Korea and different Middle East states are developing military powers sup to considerable extent. They do it by importing weapons from West and development of their military-industrial potentials. Ultimate goal in keeping weapons under control in the course of the Cold War was to secure the military balance between the USA and its allies and socialist bloc. But attitude against non-spreading of weapons of mass destruction after the Cold War is connected with danger of possession of such weapons by eastern countries having no pleasant attitudes to western interests. The west implements this process by supervision on weapon technologies, economical pressure and inter-nations agreements.
Competition between West and Confucianism-Islam appears in the field of nuclear chemical, biological weapons, ballistic rockets and their technologies.
Despite the West stands against the spreading of weapons other countries claim that they have a right to possess every kind weapon for their security. These countries indeed understand that if they want a competition with the West, they should possess high military potential. Thus when Defense Minister of India is asked “”What conclusions can be made from Gulf War?” he replied that "If you do not have nuclear weapon then don’t wage a war with the USA". Of course, but China has this kind of weapon, and India and Pakistan ability of spreading of these weapons. North Korea, Iran, Libya and Algeria are eager to get these weapons.
China is ranked as the first in the row of countries showing resistance to the military strength of the West. China astonishing the world with high economical jump has increased expenses for military sphere and is advancing in modernizing Armed Forces confidently. In 1992 China had tested one megaton atomic bomb. China is at the same time exporter of weapon and big weapon technology. China has helped Algeria in constructing of one reactor station for research and manufacture of nuclear weapon, and sold to Iran nuclear technology that may be used in only manufacture of nuclear weapon. Thanks to him North Korea has possessed to the program of developing nuclear weapon soon. According to S.Hantington though it is unknown how will be results of such friendship of Confucianism with Islamic civilization, the Western countries should take proper measures in time.

West is in the top of the world power
According to S. Hantington today the western civilization is in the top of the world power in comparison with other cultures. Because, already there is no competitor to superpower. Probability of any conflict among the Western Powers is unlikely and military strength of the west does not have any rival. He notes that so: No country of other civilizations can compete the West economically, politically and militarily, except Japan. Because problems of international politics and security is under control of the USA, England and France (because all three are members of UNO SC) and the global economy is under the control of the USA, Germany and Japan and these countries continue close relations among them without giving a chance to any non-western country. And any decision adopted by International Economic Security Council and IMF, which in self reflect interests of the West, is presented as beneficial for world community.
West realizes its economical interests by means of World Bank and IMF and other international economical organizations and forces other states to accept economical politics prepared for this purpose. However these organizations at the same time with taming a few persons in the Ministry of Finance and other economical organizations of the non-west countries without doubt make their desires to be accepted by elite of the same state. Russian Arbatov was right in some degree when said that IMF looks like “neo-bolsheviks that gets money of others and gives it to others for interest rates, to interfere in political and economic organizations by outside means, and love to stifle economic freedoms”.
According to opinions of some scholars the only civilization that can gather all people to its surroundings is the Western civilization. But in fact it is not true. Western civilization can penetrate only to backward part of the world. If we take as a whole, basic principles of the west differ from foundation principles of the other cultures fundamentally. Individualism, liberalism, human rights, equality, freedom, legal regulation, democracy, free market economy, principles of separation of religion from state and etc principles of the West (and spiritual life of the West) are not accepted by Islam, Confucianism and other cultures unambiguously. Labor of the West in spreading of these principles creates a reaction to “human rights imperialism” at people of other cultures and pushes young generation to national and religious fundamentalism. Therefore some scientists have come to such conclusion that most important values in the West are the most valueless in other civilizations».

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