PHENOMENA OF OUR DAY: GLOBALIZATION
Where from Azerbaijan must begin preparation to the process of globalization?
What is globalization and how it was emerged?
To understand and evaluate the phenomena called globalization, which emerged recently, first we should perceive this event inside of flow of time together with features, reasons and results. In reality, globalization as a historical idea is not a new conception. This process called a globalization is term that began to use at early of 20th century. During 1917 Russian socialist revolution and further after WWII the process of separation of some countries of Eastern Europe, China and Cuba from the capitalist system was suspended. Since 1970-es the globalization again started and bureaucratic regimes in above mentioned states fell down and passed to capitalism, and capitalist investments began to cover a big geographic area and strengthened its power. So, today’s position of globalization is a result of this development.
System of industry relations continuing two centuries together with international relations during last decades of 20th century passed to new development trend, too. Countries being inside of this process experience very serious transformations. One of basic conceptions of the globalization is in particular political factors, which came to forefront by disintegration of the USSR and at the same time socialist camp, too. With extensive expansion of globalization towards post- socialist countries it is expected that common targets with West in fight against communism and fascism may be replaced in future by common problems like international terror, water and global warming.
But what is the globalization? In limited (economic) meaning the globalization is getting by production factor (capital, labor, initiator, knowledge and goods) and services and trade free and de-regulative moving capability in whole world scale. But in wide meaning the globalization is a phenomena and it acquired a condition of local norm and routine condition by crossing national barriers of the universal political, social and cultural values. Like in all new processes there are supporter and opponent in the theme of globalization, too.
The supporters of globalization evaluate it like multi planned, wide a process of transformation, which covers all sides of human life. This group can use advantages of properties like knowledge, skills, abilities, novelty and creation in addition to bringing the globalization in manageable and assumable condition from their viewpoint and by using its qualities indirectly. Globalization derived from its foundation dynamics, creates suitable conditions for free flow of commodity and production factors, and it is best means in increasing welfare of man and society. However it must not be neglected that those are against the globalization in the world scale will refer to indefiniteness and even danger of this process.
In the form of international mobility of the labor, especially its new form of worker of knowledge like one component of globalization it comes to our front and optimizes global structure thanks to this element and leads to benefiting of some states from globalization. Just for this reason the globalization process will be deepened and developed irrespective of wills of this or another states, producers and consumers, briefly of anti-globalists.
International production is carried out in the establishments located in the foreign countries, like in local enterprises using contracting method. Being as its result foreign companies not only prevent declining of production but also could achieve saving of primary investments and simplification of managing structure (thus contractors are responsible self for stages of manufacture.
This production indeed gets international character. For instance, manufacture of the motor vehicle (different models) has been distributed on establishments of the seven countries and each country is responsible for its production phase. There is another kind of this manufacture, too. Head settles establishment is located in the developed country but assembly of parts and components is located in another country. And it develops rapidly like one of main tools in struggle for international manufacture markets, too.
A few tools have been a cause practical realization of the globalization. First of them is economic liberalism. Globalization and traced neo-liberal politics is reducing the role of the states and business in the economies. From one side reducing of customs duties in many two and multi-sided international agreements, lifting of non-tariff barriers, simplification of export and import procedures had been occurred. However it is necessary to note one more point that global manufacture giving priority to multisided cooperation has got a lot of from globalization than international commodity trade, which is more sensible to global national manufacture income changes. It is not in vain that World Trade Organization (WTO) is fighting so many years for accepting of the Codex on foreign investor. The function executed by international commodity trade during 1950-1960-es is now executed by physical, finance and human capitals (since 1990).
And one of other tools of the globalization is privatization. Privatization is passing of state, co-operative, collective and other property to private (true or legal person) persons for purposes of more productive usage.
Though gathering of all local cultures around one type culture in the world scale, considering them at ethic and moral problems is an undeniable fact, it would be absurdity to say that the globalization would have such effect. It is true that along with spreading of scientific-technical development and knowledge and communication technologies the expansion of Euro-American culture all over the world led to Renaissance of religious-cultural-civil values. Its reason was expansion of national elite due to number of former villagers and their preference of national-conservative values. Secondly, it was threat raised before European weapon, appeared during Vietnam, Afghan wars etc. Third reason was an ability of developing countries to enter into competition with developed countries in the world markets. Namely for this reason the coldness among vectors of civil development in early 1980-es, or to be more true technological and power disproportion rose to the hostility level in the beginning of the 1990-es and creation of universal civilization was not happen.
Meantime great development was achieved in the sphere of the economic globalization. As indicators of these successes increase of foreign trade quotas, dynamics of foreign investments and transformation of quality content and etc matters can be shown.
Opening of the 2 ways in front of the countries joined to the global economy strengthens fragmentation. Some small and middle countries do not have enough resources, and it prevents their economical growth and development. The only way to optimize agriculture proportions and to achieve growth by intensive methods is to join to the global economy. But integration means that the economy of this country is regulated directly by external markets. Indirectly this country loses the power to influence to the general economic market. Sometimes results this integration is different.
What are influences of the globalization?
Influences of the globalization are possible to observe in the countries joined to the process in the business sector, politics, technological and economical structure:
- Increase of the competition in the local and external markets,
- Transforming of manufacture factors to very flowing condition,
- Defending of the free trade and becoming diffused,
- Application of the protectionist measures,
- Activities directed to the protecting in the form of gaining of monopoly of the marks, technological discoveries, patents.
- Development of regional economic and trade blocks,
- Being challenged by mature and saturated industries and markets in economies of developed countries,
- Further increase of differences in incomes, infrastructure and welfare standards of countries,
- Demographic changes, aged population, working women, late marriages, shrinking families, shortage of qualitative work etc.
Changes of structure observed in the business sector:
- Authority of the multinational companies,
- Emerging of the forms of open company,
- Diffusing of virtual company forms,
- Growing diffusing of the strategic unions,
- Appearance of companies, which have working power prepared in the form of transforming under flexible conditions, with less steps, giving importance to man-centralization in place of big hierarchy centralized company structures.
- Supervision in the company management and increase of the importance of co-ordination.
Revolutionary changes in the technology of information and communication,
- Speed of to change in the technology of goods and production (includes themes like genetics, metallurgy etc.)
- Turning of the USA to position of single world leader without competitor,
- Effective role of G-7.
- Influence of the USA on IMF and World Bank,
- Activities of NGO-s financed by the foreign state governments,
- Limitation of capabilities of national governments to carry out programs related to independent finance and money policies.
What is the difference between globalization and internationalism?
While investigating the trends of last decades only 2 words comes to brain: globalization and internationalism?. It is clear that these two conceptions are connected with each other closely. But these words are not synonyms, in contrary, these processes are quite of another kind according to the dialectician law are contrary of one by one. Globalization means “creation of hybrid secular culture and mixture of national traditions”. Globalization is strengthening of inter-nation cooperation and distribution of labor on same rules all over the world. Globalization is connected directly with emerging of educated society ". J. Urry writes that global net reduces the distance during new machines and technologies and at the same time crosses the boundaries of the social control. It means jet aircrafts, audiovisual programs, and computer networks (Internet). It is true the globalization may reduce local and national sovereignties, especially in economic and finance spheres. But it fits with rising of economic and social welfare of 3rd world countries and as well as it is suitable for interests of the poor stratum of the society. It creates the opportunity to us to accept and understand one fact that such secular matters are to be settle don world scale.
But internationalism arises in the touch of different people with each other. That is the matter is not in lifting of boundaries and restrictions. Simply, it is noted that some limitations are reduced by superpower nations on reciprocal basis.
Differently without globalization, internationalism is not new phenomena in the universities. Internationalism spirit has always been strong in the higher education. They began to create universities in the colonials of big empires at the early of the XX century,
that after gaining an independence this process widely extended in same ex-colonies.
After WWII strengthened condition of Cold War had even greater strengthened the internationalism in the universities? The USSR and West were struggling to expand their influence over 3rd world countries. Governments involve foreign students for study at their universities. The Soviets used to prepare special scientific programs in this field. And it created conditions for spreading of the language, too. New forms of the international collaboration appear today. Today world resources, programs, institutes and organizations are mobilized in the surroundings of internationalism idea..
Why does the globalization make the information cooperation necessary?
And one of the processes given start to the process of globalization is spreading of the information and communication technologies. From one side, it is connected with efficiency of the same technologies and it is strengthening the probability of rising to high floor of the management authority of the persons related to it; not only in these spheres but the strongest professionals, too. Namely for this reason, occupying of high posts by political technologist, journalists and sometimes naked showmen in the world states are regularities brought by the globalization.
On the other hand, at a time when IT plays the dominant part, in the areas of even traditional human activities like business, science, art, to get success demands forming of the effective and energetic thinking. If necessary technologies are not used it is impossible to rise to new levels but to become strong in the level that you were. So, fast entry in the informed society, the information cooperation is formed.
Where Azerbaijan must begin preparation to the process of globalization?
By understanding that globalization is a process that is out of our will and control, so it requires serious preparation for it. To our mind our country has to start the globalization process namely from education. There is need to the following for this purpose:
- Preparation of uniform and clear strategy in education. Presently there is a need in preparation of uniform and clear for all society strategy by taking in view conditions of globalization process in education. There should be a complex approach to primary, secondary and higher education, the new education law is to be prepared in view of global conditions and Bologna process, and to be accepted. Shortage sin primary and secondary school buildings should be eliminated; difficulties must be solved from point of view potential of existing material and technical base, finance and cadre. Execution of the state programs in this direction must be more widely extended.
- Promotion of usage of computer and Internet. Process of the computerizing of the schools in the country continues at present. But in general, increase of number of computer owner in the country level and spreading of use from Internet, and adapting number of the persons using computer in the country to world level is necessary.
- Necessity of the learning of the foreign languages. All understand that international cooperation in education leads to learning of one common language. Process of globalization demands from us that students be prepared on foreign language more perfectly. We have to examine foreign language knowledge of every student and make some conclusion. Today great part of FDI-s directed to EU by the USA is concentrated mainly in Ireland. The most basic factor here is the availability of high qualified specialists knowing the English. We also will be able to master a potential that can turn the Azerbaijan to the centre of the foreign investments directing to region, too. There is need for the broadening our activities in two directions for this purpose: In the first place, promotion of learning of foreign language as state policy and secondly, reorganization of work of high institutions on preparations of specialists that are demanded by our modern time.
- Establishment of the educational television. There is a need in establishment of educational television. It is necessary to broadcast all the day programs on usage of computer and, learning of foreign languages in addition to basic subjects.
- Promotion of education in abroad. It is not in vain that Japan, one of the most developed countries of the world, is the 1st country in the world that sends more students for study in abroad. From this view point there is necessity on propaganda of post bachelor study in aboard and to accept the Azerbaijani version of CMAT, CRAT exams, which are accepted in all over the world. Preparation of our youth to world level exams on Magistrate level will allow that doors of the world universities will be opened to our young people.
Because, just being deservedly prepared to demands of our time our country in person of its young generation can occupy worthy place and can gain a status of important country of the region.
It must not be forgotten that these undeniable benefits of the globalization are available only for countries which are not afraid of this process and can control it in the best way. For purposes that Azerbaijan would not remain outside of the globalization phenomena and getting maximum benefit from this process it is necessary to pay attention to the following subjects, too:
- The state must make getting of benefit maximum from globalization process with it all organizations, system and institutes as its basic purpose.
- Close cooperation with international organizations and integration is to be done.
- Information connected with globalization process must be given in secondary school books and university books in objective form at every stage
- To get maximum benefit from this process the existing legislation should be brought to conformity with global standards.
- The state must accept that it will not be able to interfere in free market as it likes.
- National boundaries should be opened to the foreign capital after necessary regulations and all restrictions must be liquidated.
- All rights possessed by local investors must be given to foreign investors.
- Liberal customs and tax must be applied regimes.
-With digitalization and e-state practices the transparency must reach to the maximum level.
- Subjects like competition, thinking and industry patent rights, technology transfers and license are to be paid more attention and the strict measures are to be taken against the piracy.
- It is necessary that finance sector to be linked with infrastructure that can meet this process.
- It should not be forgotten that globalization is not just an economic process and from this viewpoint a priority is to be given to such maters like liberal democratic traditions, NGO-s, Open Society Institutes, democratic pluralism etc.
- Finally, Scientific-practical workshops and conferences to be arranged on wide scale connected to economic-social-cultural- technological effects of the globalization and the discussion of this theme in media is to be provided.
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